Large scale 3D printing – past, present and future prospects
Since over two decades ago, when the speaker invented the Contour Crafting technology and started the development in the field of large scale 3D printing, no other activity in the field was initiated for over a decade. More recently the number of related developments have been almost exponentially increasingly. Technologies using various materials and various robotics approaches have been recently under development targeting a multitude of applications in the large scale domain. A historical perspective, a review of current activities and discussion of future prospects for terrestrial and planetary applications of large scale 3D printing will be presented.
Behrokh “Berok” Khoshnevis is the President and CEO of Contour Crafting Corporation (CC Corp), is a Dean’s Professor at the University of Southern California having affiliations with Aerospace & Mechanical, Astronautics, Biomedical, Civil & Environmental and Industrial & Systems Engineering departments and is the Director of the Center for Rapid Automated Fabrication Technologies (CRAFT) at USC. He is active in robotics, and mechatronics related research and development projects that include the development of several novel Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) processes such as Contour Crafting for mega-scale fabrication, SIS family of technologies for polymeric, metallic and ceramic parts and SSS for high temperature alloys and ceramics, as well as development of mechatronics systems for biomedical applications (e.g., digital dental prostheses fabrication, robotics for orthodontics, rehabilitation engineering, and tactile sensing devices), autonomous mobile and modular robots for fabrication and assembly on Earth, in space and on other planets, and specialized innovative equipment for oil and gas as well as renewable energy industries. He has numerous inventions and nearly 100 US and international patents as well as nearly 200 refereed technical publications.
He is a National Academy of Inventors inductee, a Member of the European Union Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, a Fellow of the Institute of Industrial & Systems Engineering, a Fellow of the Society for Computer Simulation and a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept Fellow. He has won several awards including the Khwarizmi International Award (KIA Laureate), USC School of Engineering Senior Research award, Pete Lohman Best Engineering Alumni award, and Sharif University of Technology One of Top 50 (among ~50,000) Alumni Award. He was recognized in 2017 by the Connected World magazine as one of top 10 pioneers in the Internet of Things (IoT). Connected World has celebrated leading business leaders such as Glenn Lurie, AT&T and Elon Musk, Tesla as other IoT pioneers.
Dr. Khoshnevis’ inventions routinely receive extensive worldwide publicity in acclaimed media such as New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Business Week, Der Spiegel, New Scientist, and major national and international television and radio networks. Because of his Contour Crafting invention he received the 2014 Grand Prize among 1000+ globally competing technologies in the Create the Future design contest which was organized by NASA Tech Briefs Media Group and sponsored by HP, Intel and other major industries. Contour Crafting was selected earlier as one of the top 25 out of more than 4000 candidate inventions by the History Channel Modern Marvels program and the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame; and has been identified as one of the major disruptive technologies of our time by the renowned Harvard Professor, Clayton Christensen, who coined the term “disruptive technology”. The technology has been exhibited in numerous science & technology and art museums around the world.
Dr. Khoshnevis’ another 3D printing invention, Selective Separation Shaping (SSS) won another international competition grand prize by NASA in 2016 as the most capable and versatile metallic and ceramic Additive Manufacturing technology for micro-gravity and planetary applications.
In 2017 Dr. Khoshnevis was recognized by the Connected World Magazine as one of top ten academic pioneers in the Internet of Things (IoT).
Dr. Khoshnevis’ educational activities at USC include the teaching of a popular graduate course on Invention and Technology Development. He routinely conducts lectures and seminars and gives keynote speeches on the subject of invention. His TEDx talk on the subject of automated construction has been viewed more than one million times and was selected by the TED organization as one of five TEDx Moments among over 30,000 presentations.
Richard A. Wysk
A Supply Chain Model for Additive Manufacturing: A Medical Case component
This presentation presents an exciting new topic for industrial/manufacturing engineering – using Additive Manufacturing (AM), or 3D Printing as it is commonly known in the press, to produce unique one-of-a-kind parts. Although AM has held the promise of making functional metal components directly from a CAD model in 1-2 days with very little human interactions, deficiencies associated with AM makes this vision difficult to achieve. For instance, parts coming from a metal AM process are typically the texture of a casting, meaning that they require finishing operations of some sort. This cast like surface also affects the mechanical properties of the component often leaving these parts with less than desired fatigue properties.
Richard Wysk’s research and teaching interests are in the general area of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) and medical device design and manufacturing. In particular, he is interested in: 1) lean manufacturing (waste elimination and setup reduction), 2) product/process engineering, 3) Computer-Aided Manufacturing, 4) Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) planning, design and control, and most recently 5) the engineering and manufacturing of medical products, including regenerative medical products.
Dr. Wysk has coauthored six books including Computer-Aided Manufacturing, with T.C. Chang and H.P. Wang — the 1991 IIE Book of the Year and the 1991 SME Eugene Merchant Book of the Year. He has also published more than one-hundred seventy-five technical papers in the open-literature in journals including the Transactions of ASME, the Transactions of IEEE and the IIE Transactions. He is an Associate Editor and/or a member of the Editorial Board for five technical journals.
Dr. Wysk is an IIE Fellow, an SME Fellow, a member of Sigma Xi, and a member of Alpha Pi Mu and Tau Beta Pi. He is the recipient of the IIE Region III Award for Excellence, the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award, the IIE David F. Baker Distinguished Research Award and the IIE Albert Holzman Outstanding Educator Award.
He has held engineering positions with General Electric and Caterpillar Tractor Company. He has also served on the faculties of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Texas A&M University where he held the Royce Wisenbaker Chair in Innovation. He is a veteran of the U.S. Army, and served in Vietnam, where he earned a Bronze Star and an Army Commendation Medal with an Oak Leaf Cluster.
Robotics as Assistive Technology for Humans: Design of Robot as Tool for Treatment of Children with Developmental Disorders
Therapy in children with developmental disorders should start as early as possible, soon after noticing certain signs of the disorder. This is reason why majority of such patients are very young kids. Treatment procedures are usually time-consuming, tiring, and exhaustive to both, the child and the parents. It often happens that the fall of motivation, tiredness, and monotony, lead to a slower achievement of desired treatment goals. The use of robots would establish the child-robot interaction that would contribute to the change of the environment, rising of motivation and establishing continual stimulation of the treatment. Thus, the main goal of such means of assistive technology is to ensure long-lasting motivation of the child with the objective of facilitating treatment procedures. This will be possible to realize only if the robot is capable to arouse and maintain the vivid inter¬est of the child. The first requirement in designing such robot to be fulfilled is robot’s is attractiveness to child. Child should like it. To define robot’s appearance, psychologists perform test¬ing of kids. The second requirement was to define such robot structure to enable exercises demonstration. This was basis for artists to model it i.e. to define its structure, shape and color. In addition, robot should be able to perform appropriate verbal communication with patient and therapist to attract and keep child’s attention.
First testing in hospital already has been done and initial results are very encouraging.
Branislav Borovac is the Professor of Robotics in Faculty of Technical Sciences at University of Novi Sad, Serbia. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Novi Sad in 1982 and 1986 respectively. He became Assistant Professor of Engineering Design 1987, Assistant Professor of Robotics 1988, Associate Professor of Robotics 1993 and since 1998 he has been Professor of Robotics, all at the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad. He is coauthor of two research monograph and five book chapters. He is author/coathor of more than 50 scientific papers in the field of robotics which are published in international journals, as well as author/coauthor of about 100 papers in proceedings of international conferences and congresses. His citation index is close to 4000. He was visiting professor at University of Versailles, 2009 and Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. He is Associate editor of International Journal of Humanoid Robotics (published by World Scientific Publishing Co., Pte. Ltd). His research interest includes biped locomotion, humanoids, robot modeling and control, industrial robotics, sensors and sensor information integration, mechatronics.
Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms for Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling
Many combinatorial optimization problems (COP) in the real world manufacturing systems impose on more complex issues, such as complex structure, nonlinear constraints, and multiple objectives to be handled simultaneously and make the problem intractable to the traditional approaches because of NP-hard COP. In order to develop an efficient solution algorithm that is in a sense “best solution” that is, whose reasonable computational time for NP-hard combinatorial problems met in practice, we have to consider the following very important issues:
1) Quality of solution, 2) Computational time and 3) Effectiveness of the nondominated solutions for multiobjective optimization problem (MOP).
Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of metaheuristics, a generic population-based metaheuristic such as genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA). EA is based on principles from evolution theory, and it is very powerful and broadly applicable stochastic search and combinatorial optimization technique which is effective for solving various NP hard COP models.
This tutorial talk will be firstly introduced a brief survey of several metaheuristics based on EA such as GA, hybrid GA (HGA), multiobjective GA (MoGA), PSO and EDA for applying to various combinatorial optimization problems in real world semiconductor manufacturing systems. Secondly real applications based on hybrid metaheuristics will summarize the following recent semiconductor manufacturing scheduling topics:
1. HGA and PSO+GA for Reentrant Flowshop Scheduling in HDD Manufacturing Scheduling [9,10,12,13, 15],
2. Mo-HGA with TOPSIS for TFT-LCD Module Assembly Scheduling [7,14],
3. Cooperative EDA for Semiconductor Final Testing Scheduling  and
4. Hybrid EDA with multi-subpopulation for Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling
Dr. Mitsuo Gen is a senior research scientist at Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute and visiting professor at Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Japan. He received PhD in Engineering from Kogakuin University in 1975 and PhD in Informatics from Kyoto University in 2006. He has held Faculty position at Ashikaga Institute of Technology 1974-2003 and Waseda University 2003- 2010. He was also visiting faculty at University of California at Berkeley 1999-2000, Texas A&M University 2000, Hanyang University 2010-2012 and National Tsing Hua University 2012-2014, Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute 2009-current and Tokyo University of Science 2014-current. Dr. Hgen’s research interests are in areas of Evolutionary Computation, Manufacturing Scheduling, and Logistics. He has held the following editorial positions: Editor-in-Chief: IE & MS Journal, President of APIEMS (2005.1– 2006.12) and IMS (2010.8–2016.8).
Dr, Gen is the Area Editor for International Journal of Computers & Industrial Engineering, and Associate Editor for Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing